Language Trang 32 Unit 8 Sgk Tiếng Anh 11 Mới

     
Hoi An Ancient Town

Hoi An Ancient Town is an exceptionally well-preserved example of a South-East Asian trading port dating from the 15th khổng lồ the 19th century. Its buildings and its street plan reflect the influences, both indigenous & foreign, that have combined khổng lồ produce this chất lượng heritage site.

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Vieille ville de Hoi An

Hoi An constitue un exemple exceptionnellement bien préservé d"une cité qui fut un port marchand d"Asie du Sud-Est du XVe au XIXe siècle. Ses bâtiments et la disposition de ses rues reflètent les traditions autochtones aussi bien que les influences étrangères, qui ont donné naissance à ce vestige unique.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0


مدينة هوي - آن القديمة

تجسد مدينة هوي- آن مثالاً سليماً لمدينة شكلت مرفأ تجارياً جنوب شرق آسيا من القرن الخامس عشر ولغاية القرن التاسع عشر. وتعكس أبنيتها وتصميم شوارعها التقاليد المحلية والتأثيرات الخارجية التي أدّت الى نشوء هذا الأثر الفريد.

source: aquabigman.com/ERIDescription is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0


会安古镇

会安古镇是15世纪到19世纪东南亚的一个贸易港,是一个保存非常完好的范例。其建筑和街道样式,受到本地和国外风格的影响,土洋结合的风格共同孕育出这个独特的遗址。

source: aquabigman.com/ERIDescription is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0


Исторический город Хойан

Исторический город Хойан – это пример исключительно хорошо сохранившегося торгового порта в Юго-Восточной Азии, относящегося к периоду XV-XIX вв. Его застройка и планировка сложились под воздействием как местных традиций, так и пришлых культур, в результате чего и сформировался этот уникальный объект наследия.

source: aquabigman.com/ERIDescription is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0


Ciudad vieja de Hoi An

Hoi An constituye un ejemplo excepcional de lo que fue una ciudad portuaria mercantil del Asia Sudoriental entre los siglos XV y XIX. Sus edificios y el trazado de sus calles son un fiel reflejo de la combinación de estilos arquitectónicos, autóctonos y extranjeros, que ha dado su fisionomía singular a este sitio único en su género.

source: aquabigman.com/ERIDescription is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0


古都ホイアンベトナム中部、クアンナム・ダナン省中部、トゥボン川河口の都市。16世紀末、グエン朝の貿易奨励策により朱印船など外国船の入港が活発となり、17世紀には大貿易港となって日本人町・中国人町も形成された。15~19世紀における東南アジア貿易港の姿をよくとどめている。最盛期には1,000人以上の日本人居住者がいたが、現在では1593年に作られた屋根付きのカラ・ライ・ヴィエン(来遠橋、日本橋)と郊外の日本人墓地にわずかにその名残をとどめている。日本ユネスコ協会連盟は、町並み保存に協力していた。

source: NFUAJ


Oude stad Hoi An

De oude stad Hoi An is een bijzonder voorbeeld van een traditionele handelshaven in Zuidoost-Azië die volledig en uitzonderlijk goed bewaard is gebleven. Het merendeel van de gebouwen is gebouwd in de traditionele 19e en 20e-eeuwse bouwstijl. Zowel de gebouwen als het stratenplan weerspiegelen inheemse en buitenlandse invloeden. De stad kent veel religieuze gebouwen zoals pagodes, tempels en vergaderhuizen, ontstaan door toedoen van de havengemeenschap in Hoi An. De traditionele levensstijl, godsdienst en (culturele) gewoonten zijn bewaard gebleven en veel festivals vinden nog steeds jaarlijks plaats.

Source: aquabigman.com.nl


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Hoi An Ancient Town (Viet Nam) © Bruno Doucin

Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

Hoi An Ancient town is located in Viet Nam’s central Quang phái mạnh Province, on the north bank near the mouth of the Thu Bon River. The inscribed property comprises 30 ha & it has a buffer zone of 280 ha. It is an exceptionally well-preserved example of a small-scale trading port active the 15th khổng lồ 19th centuries which traded widely, both with the countries of Southeast và East Asia và with the rest of the world. Its decline in the later 19th century ensured that it has retained its traditional urban tissue to a remarkable degree.

The town reflects a fusion of indigenous và foreign cultures (principally Chinese and Japanese with later European influences) that combined to produce this chất lượng survival. 

The town comprises a well-preserved complex of 1,107 timber frame buildings, with brick or wooden walls, which include architectural monuments, commercial và domestic vernacular structures, notably an open market và a ferry quay, và religious buildings such as pagodas and family cult houses. The houses are tiled and the wooden components are carved with traditional motifs. They are arranged side-by-side in tight, unbroken rows along narrow pedestrian streets. There is also the fine wooden Japanese bridge, with a pagoda on it, dating from the 18th century. The original street plan, which developed as the town became a port, remains. It comprises a grid of streets with one axis parallel to lớn the river & the other axis of streets and alleys phối at right angles khổng lồ it. Typically, the buildings front the streets for convenient customer access while the backs of the buildings xuất hiện to the river allowing easy loading & off-loading of goods from boats.

The surviving wooden structures và street plan are original và intact & together present a traditional townscape of the 17th and 18th centuries, the survival of which is unique in the region. The town continues lớn this day to lớn be occupied và function as a trading port and centre of commerce. The living heritage reflecting the diverse communities of the indigenous inhabitants of the town, as well as foreigners, has also been preserved & continues to lớn be passed on. Hoi An Ancient Town remains an exceptionally well-preserved example of a Far Eastern port.

Criterion (ii): Hoi An is an outstanding material manifestation of the fusion of cultures over time in an international commercial port.

Criterion (v): Hoi An is an exceptionally well-preserved example of a traditional Asian trading port.

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Integrity

Hoi An Ancient Town has retained its original form và function as an outstanding example of a well-preserved traditional South East Asian trading port & commercial centre. It remains complete as a homogenous complex of traditional wooden buildings, with the original organically developed street plan, within the town’s original river/seacoast setting.

These original cultural and historic features demonstrate the town’s outstanding universal value & are present, well-preserved, and evident within the boundary of the inscribed property, even while it continues to lớn be occupied and function as a trading port, as well as a popular tourism destination. As a result of this economic stagnation since the 19th century, it has not suffered from development và there has not been pressure lớn replace the older wooden buildings with new ones in modern materials. This has ensured that the town has retained its traditional urban tissue và is preserved in a remarkably intact state.

Authenticity

Hoi An Ancient Town has retained its traditional wooden architecture và townscape in terms of plot size, materials, façade và roof line. Its original street plan, with buildings backing on to lớn the river, with its infrastructure of quays, canals and bridges in its original setting, also remains. The historic landscape setting is also intact, consisting of a coastal environment of river, seashore, dunes & islands.

Because most of the buildings were constructed in wood it is necessary for them khổng lồ be repaired at intervals, và so many buildings with basic structures from the 17th và 18th centuries were renewed in the 19th century, using traditional methods of repair. There is currently no pressure khổng lồ replace older buildings with new ones in modern materials such as concrete & corrugated iron.

Protection & management requirements

Hoi An Ancient Town was classified as a National Cultural Heritage Site in 1985 và subsequently as a Special National Cultural Heritage Site under the Cultural Heritage Law of 2001 amended in 2009. The entire town is State property và is effectively protected by a number of relevant national laws & governmental decisions, such as: the Cultural Heritage Law (2001, amended 2009) và the Tourism Law (2005). The 1997 Hoi An Town Statute defines in regulations that are implemented by the Hoi An Center for Monuments Management & Preservation, the responsible agency of the People’s Committee for the management of the property. Day-to-day management involves collaboration with various stakeholders, khổng lồ maintain the authenticity & integrity of the property và to monitor socio-economic activities within & adjacent khổng lồ the property. The capacity of the professional staff has been & continues to lớn be developed by many domestic & international training courses. Revenue from entrance tickets is invested directly in the management, preservation and promotion of the property. Management & preservation are further strengthened through master planning and action plans at the local level. There are also regular restoration & conservation programmes.

Multi-disciplinary research conducted by teams of international và national scholars has informed the conservation and interpretation of the town’s heritage. This research is on-going. Within the property boundary, the landscape, the townscape, the architecture & all material cultural artifacts are preserved.

A Management Plan was implemented at the time of nomination of the property, and is being kept up to lớn date & reviewed as required by aquabigman.com to ensure that it remains effective.

The buffer zone is managed lớn protect the property from external threats. The potential adverse effects khổng lồ the property caused by annual flooding and urbanization are being effectively controlled with the active participation of all authorities và the local community.

The Master Plan for the Hoi An Ancient town conservation, restoration and promotion together with the city and tourism development was approved by Prime Minister on 12 January 2012, covered the period until 2025.

Long-term management should aim to promote improvement in the living conditions for local residents. As tourism increases a strategy lớn manage it within the parameters of the site will be required. Strategies to giảm giá with adverse effects of the climate are being developed và should be included in the Management Plan.

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In the future, it is an aim to link the Hoi An Ancient Town with the adjacent aquabigman.com Cu Lao Cham Biosphere Reserve & to build Hoi An into a community integrating ecology, culture and tourism.